New translation (2015) from Japanese to English by Dr. Mark Hosak of the Usui memorial in Saihoji temple. There already exist different translations of the inscription on the memorial.
When I (Mark) had a closer look on the inscription, I recognized, that there are some parts which and phrases which have not been translated and that some words were translated like they are modern Japanese. If we look on the inscription as an old text from 1927 the translation of the memorial can be different.
As it is written in the inscription itself, it is like a sutra-text. This means that there are many levels of meanings of word and phrases in the memorial. Therefore I write for many years in every German Reiki-Magazin an article of one the sentences, variations of translations with explanations of the religious, political, historical, cultural and spiritual background. In fact this inscription goes really deep and it is possible to learn about Usui, Reiki and Japan. The memorial also gives a complete guide to personal and spiritual development.
The memorial stone of the life’s work of Master Usui, the founder of the spiritual method.
The stone engraved epitaph of the work of master Usui
It is said that one achieves the inner wealth by regularly building up the true training of mental exercises. It is said that the meritorious deed is to spread the path of teaching, initiating, and redeeming others from their grief to happiness, performing events in all kinds of places outside. The dignity of a teacher may be greater than that of merit and many years of experience as well as outstanding sincerity.
From time immemorial, the honorable learned sages and philosophers have handed down knowledgeable traditions. He was probably like one of those who founded a new school.
The spiritual life energy (reiki) of the universe can be traced back to masters like Usui in the past and those who have recently become masters.
At first, everyone heard that he was spreading a method of improving body and soul. Even if he sent them home, they asked him together for instruction and treatment.
What is it that made him famous and shining?
The common name of the Master is Mikao, his Buddhist name is Gyôhan. He was born in the village of Taniai in the district of Yamagata in Gifu Prefecture, whose ancestors go back to Chiba Tsunetane (1118-1201).
The posthumous name of the father is Taneuji. His commonly used name is Uzaemon. The family name of the mother is Kawai. The master was born on August 15 of the first year of the Keiô era (April 7, 1865 to September 8, 1868).
As he got older, he traveled by ship to the west and deftly went through China.
Over time he got the extraordinary going. However, it developed differently than hoped. Although he suffered defeat and disrespect over and over again, he simply did not give up. He was training more and more to do it.
One day he climbed Kurama Mountain. He renounced food and performed hard and laborious ascetic practices. On 20.-21. Day he suddenly sensed a sensational mystical energy (Reiki) above his head. He suddenly received the method of natural healing of spiritual life energy. From then on, he tried this on his own body.
When the master tried this on family members, he observed the success on the spot. Instead of doing something good for the family members alone, he considered teaching people far and wide.
When he became friends with this idea in the course of this happy event, he moved to Tôkyô Aoyama in the district of Harajuku in April of the year Taishô 11 (1922).
He set up an academy and taught the Reiki healing method. He performed treatments. From near and far, they came to ask him. Outside, the shoes of many people gathered.
In September of the 12th year (1923), a earthquake disaster occurred with a conflagration. This led to traumatic injuries and excruciating pain. In the places where he could make a difference, the Master deeply felt the pain. At dawn he set out and wandered around the city. Irrespective of the fact that he did not know what he would receive, he treated patients with no prospect of payment.
Unexpectedly, he turned to them. Saving from grief under the most adverse circumstances is so great that it seeks no equal.
After his gym had become too small, he took a divination as an opportunity to build in February of the year Taishô 14 (1925) outside the city in Nakano.
As his reputation grew in the area, he became a man not infrequently invited for his reputation. Master accepted these requests. He went to Kure, then made his way to Hiroshima and finally arrived in Saga.
During his stay in Fukuyama, he unexpectedly contracted illness and eventually died in an inn. That was on March 9 of the year Taishô 15.
At the time of his death, he was 62 years old. His wife’s name was Suzuki and given name Teiko (Sadako) and gave birth to a boy and a girl. He called his son Fuji (Buddhist Funi) and he inherited his house.
Master was modest and meek in his personality. He did not care about his outward appearance.
He had a great physique. He always had a smile on his face. Whenever there was a matter, he showed inner strength, was patient, and prepared himself with the utmost care.
He inherently had talent and craftsmanship. He had a penchant for reading and rummaged a lot in biographies based on historical records. He was well versed in medical literature, Buddhist sutra, and sacred texts of Christianity. From the areas of knowledge of the state of mind, methods of recluse monks to supernatural powers, spell and summon magic with magic formulas, divination with oracle sticks, to the art of foreseeing the future of face diagnosis, there was nothing he did not know about.
Due to the material for training mental exercises probably developed so the life history of the master in science and art. It is clear and obvious that the training of mental exercises formed the key and the whole in the founding of the spiritual method.
Looking back, this spiritual method makes it clear that it should not be limited to treating illnesses and bad habits. The point is that the supernatural abilities of gifted nature form the basis, causing the adept to complete the spiritual heart, to keep the body healthy and to accept a life of prosperity.
It follows that this person is supposed to teach, in general, to follow the teachings of the late Meiji-Tennô, who is to recite five principles (rules of life) in the morning and in the evening and draw attention to the spiritual heart.
First, it says: Today you should not be annoyed. Second, it says: one should not be sad. Third, it says: Be thankful! Fourth, it says: Dedicate yourself to your karma! Fifth, it says: Get used to being benevolent to the beings and your soul.
This is truly a very important instruction in the development of mental power. This is the one way that was taught by the sages and sages of ancient times.
If you become a master, you should compare them (the rules of life) with a fortunate secret method and a spiritual cure for countless illnesses, and make their characteristics known in all places.
Moreover, this is not about loftiness at all, but about achieving the art of spiritual teaching and making an effort to understand the content in an understandable way. When you sit down on your knees, direct your attention inward, breathe deeply and exhale, fold your hands in front of your heart and recite morning and night (the rules of life), you develop a pure and healthy mind as a result of a balanced and sincere practice.
The reason is simple, that this spiritual method should also reach many people. This is not just the change in the perception of the evolving progress of the era of recent years.
Fortunately, one should spread this spiritual method in an open way. With this way of virtue to be protected by the people of the world and the will of the spiritual heart of the people, the needy are to be helped a great deal.
Why is that? Of course, it is not just about the successful healing of difficult to cure conditions such as depression and chronic illnesses.
About 2000 other people have become disciples of the Master. Those among them, who are his most outstanding students in the capital city, are holding meetings and continuing the significant achievement. And many of those around them dedicate many to this method.
Although the Master has gone away, the spiritual method should be spread as a guide for all ages of the world.
The Master received his famous and shining reputation out of himself. Oh, how great and great is passing on under heaven to others!
The fact that so many Samurai learned and had a conversation with a Master these days led to the construction of a stone in the Saihôji Cemetery in Toyotama District, with the intention that these merits should be written in imperishable verses by means of a Buddhist text. The task of authorship for the text was brought to me.
I feel deeply touched to serve Master’s outstanding and deserving work. The many samurai praise the close friendship between teacher and student. I resolutely accepted the task of describing an overview.
We hope that we can do everything for future generations, that when they see it (the memorial stone), they feel deeply touched, look up to it, admire it, respectfully speak and proclaim.
February of the 2nd year (1927) of the Shôwa period (1926-1989)
Author – Okada Masayuki – Dr. Ing. for Literature – Order of Merit of the lower 3rd rank 3rd class
Calligraphy – Ushida Juzaburo – Rear Admiral of the lower 4th rank, 3rd merit grade of the 4th grade
Shingon Reiki was founded in 2005 by Dr. Mark Hosak developed after 12 years of research on the sources of the Usui Reiki healing method. On the one hand, the development of Shingon Reiki includes the history of Reiki since Mikao Usui (1865-1926) and, on the other hand, the career of Dr. Mark Hosak who began learning Japanese at the age of thirteen with Japanese martial arts masters.
Reiki and Buddhism 霊気と仏教
Through his studies in East Asian Art History and Japanese Studies at the University of Heidelberg and during his three-year stay in Japan as a scholarship holder of the DAAD and Rotary, Dr. Mark Hosak in the course of his research on Buddhist rituals and healing, recognized links to Reiki. In 1995, he discovered the master symbol in sutras and the origin of the mental healing symbol in Siddham script, which became the focus of his master’s and doctoral thesis.
The Reiki founder Mikao Usui was born in 1865 into a samurai family. As part of his education, he learned in a monastery school of Tantric Tendai Buddhism and later became a monk. Tendai unites the teachings of Zen, Amida and Shingon Buddhism.
The memorial stone at the tomb of Mikao Usui was newly re-translated by Dr. Mark Hosak and published in honor of Mikao Usui’s 150th birthday in Usui Special Edition (Olivers Verlag) 2015. The text was written in the technical terms of a Buddhist sutras. It describes Reiki as a spiritual method and natural healing art. With Reiki healing should not only refer to symptoms and illnesses, but to the completion of the spiritual heart with mental exercises, to the development of the personality and the training of natural and supernatural abilities. Two methods of application are described: giving Reiki by laying on of hands and the contemplative meditation of the rules of life, which goes back to a basic Buddhist sutra, which also describes the applications and initiations with the Reiki master symbol.
Since the time of Usui, the following basic effects designated to Reiki to activate the self-healing powers: detoxification, vitalization, pain relief, relaxation, calming, and regeneration. The same effects could be shown for meditation, as well as for Reiki in numerous studies. This is because Reiki applications are like an attentiveness meditation, with the addition of Reiki energy.
The origin of the mental healing symbol is used in Buddhist temples for the living and deceased in healing rituals of the mind / heart and dissolving karmic entanglements.
Etymology of Shingon Reiki 真言靈氣の語源
The Japanese term Shingon translates into English: ‚True words‘. Shingon in Japanese stands for the ancient Indian Sanskrit term Mantra. At the same time, Shingon is the name of a Japanese school of Tantric Buddhism. Reiki means ’spiritual life energy‘. Shingon Reiki is therefore the ‚Spiritual Life Energy of True Words‘.
Contents of Shingon Reiki 真言靈氣の内容
Shingon Reiki primarily includes the western and Japanese traditions of traditional Usui Reiki. Added to this is the research on the resources of Usui, from which he himself drew. According to the memorial stone, the Eastern and Western wisdom teachings, shamanism, meditations and rituals of Buddhist spiritual healing, psychological aspects and research are within the scope of the dissertation from Dr. Mark Hosak.
History and Lineage of Shingon Reiki 真言靈氣の歴史
Shingon Reiki contains three lineages that go back to Usui: in the 2nd level Usui – Hayashi – Takata – Furumoto – Habben – Furhmann – Hosak; in the Master Level Usui – Taketomi – Koyama – Doi – Piquer – Hosak and Usui – Wanami – ? – Aoki – Piquer – Hosak (The Master of Aoki is a member of the Gakkai and would not like to be named here to avoid being excluded).
Since Shingon Reiki was founded in 2005, the Shingon Reiki lineage begins on the basis of the three Usui lineages with Dr. Mark Hosak. In 2013, Dr. Mark Hosak was asked by his students to teach Shingon Reiki up to the master degree. He accepted this request. Meanwhile world wide, there are 13 of Dr. Mark Hosak´s trained masters of Shingon Reiki.
In facts, energetic and content, Shingon Reiki has nothing to do with the lineage of other modern Reiki styles that Dr. Mark Hosak once practised and supplemented by his research (For more Info: www.markhosak.com/shingon-reiki.html Can be translated in english on request)
Philosophy of Shingon Reiki 真言靈氣との思想
According to the Buddhist teachings of Usui, Shingon Reiki is about liberating others from their suffering and spreading happiness, completing the spiritual heart, keeping the body healthy, and accepting a life in prosperity. Long-term goals are the development of inner strength, patience, diligence, modesty, gentleness and a smiling heart. Shingon Reiki is a way to achieve an inner peace in the heart.
The contents of Shingon Reiki are taught in a simple way. In addition to training instruction, mastery can be gained over many years of experience, dedication and sincerity.
The following article on Healing Rituals in Esoteric Buddhism is the introduction to the doctoral thesis of Dr. Mark Hosak. The thesis is published in German language. Click here to order.
Siddhaṃ are the characters from the Indian Brahmi scripts. This is the font of Sanskrit. Single Siddhaṃ in Japan is called seed syllables shuji 種子 or Indian characters bonji 梵字. The transliteration into Japanese of the Sanskrit word Siddhaṃ is shittan 悉曇.
Esoteric Buddhism developed in India in the middle of the 7th century and was soon handed down to China. Its teachings focus on the application of the Siddhaṃ in rituals as magical seed or ban syllables when invoking the salvific forms of the esoteric pantheon. The Indian monks residing in China engaged in propagating the esoteric teachings with translations of sutra.
Between 630 and 894, delegates from Japan were sent to China to study culture. Among them were monks who studied Buddhism in the monasteries and brought scriptures, ritual objects, paintings and sculptures to Japan on their return. In this way and by traveling Chinese and Indian monks to Japan, the Siddhaṃ were handed down.
Since the official introduction of Esoteric Buddhism to Japan, when the monks Kûkai 空 海 (774-835) and Saichô 最澄 (767-822) 805 and 806 returned from their studies in China, the Siddhaṃ teaching became established in rituals and meditations. In the following decades, other monks brought from their travels to China numerous documents about the Siddhaṃ to Japan, which were then extensively studied and copied since the beginning of the 10th century. Starting from the 11th century an influence of the Siddhaṃ on Japanese art beyond the written material becomes apparent.
In the present work, the developmental history of Siddhaṃ in Japanese art will be discussed in rituals of healing. First and foremost, this is Siddhaṃ A , which, in the context of the contemplative meditation of Siddhaṃ A called Ajikan 阿 字 觀, is the basic practice in Esoteric Buddhism for attaining Buddhahood in the body of the present incarnation. If the A is replaced by other siddhaṃ in the contemplative meditation, there are variations of the Ajikan used in meditations and in rituals.
It should be examined whether and to what extent the Siddhaṃ A and other Siddhaṃ occur in the arts and have a function in rituals of healing. The basis for this is the translation of the Japanese text Ajikan by the monk Kakuban 覚 鑁 (1095-1143), in which the contemplative meditation with Siddhaṃ A is extensively discussed in theory and practice. In the text, the topic of healing is in fact addressed, which raises the question of what is meant by healing, since today’s definition of healing may differ from that of the past.Therefore, it can not be determined exactly whether the view of what healing meant at that time can be interpreted by today’s standards. Conventional medicine describes healing the process of, for example, a physical or mental illness or an injury by the disappearance of the symptoms without permanent damage to the restoration of health and the original condition. In the text Ajikan, the healing of physical illnesses is mentioned only marginally as a possibility of application variation of Ajikan meditation. The term healing is used in the text Ajikan as taiji 対 治. It stands for the healing and purification of the illusions in the heart such as tribulation. In the text Ajikan taiji is related to the benefits of healing the three poisons sandoku taiji no kôyô G 毒 対 ノ 功用 of greed, hatred and delusion in one’s own heart. Without repeating the concept of healing taiji, the text is about the cleansing and healing of the heart – not the organic heart, but the heart in the spiritual sense, with the help of the Ajikan practice. Therefore, it could be suspected that it could either be a forerunner of psychotherapy or mental healing. However, this is unlikely because one person treats another person, while in the practice of Ajikan one can only speak of a form of self-treatment in a contemplative meditation.
The text Ajikan describes various approaches of the Ajikan in esoteric buddhism and the meaning and function of Siddhaṃ A before the philosophical background for the healing of the heart. In this respect, neither the type of treatment nor the definition of cure seems to be about medical criteria.The only parallel seems to be that when healing for development, it goes from a distressing state to a non-afflicted state. However, healing in the esoteric Buddhism of the Shingon school describes the steady development of the heart of enlightenment. This, unlike the cure of a diagnosed disease, is a lifelong process of development, assuming that the imperishable (spiritual) heart is primarily healed while the physical body is transient.
Beyond the text of Ajikan, the term ‚healing‘ in esoteric buddhism is used in the descriptions of siddhaṃ on artifacts in exhibition catalogs and in the theoretical literature on meditations and rituals of healing. The healing term taiji 対 治 from the text Ajikan is described and defined in different ways in rituals, depending on their effect.These include in particular the terms of healing and disease prevention sokusai 息 災, the exorcism chôbuku 調伏 and several types of incantations and health kaji 加 持, which in the relevant chapters on healing in Buddhism and on the Siddhaṃ in the Japanese art and about the meditations and rituals of healing with the Siddhaṃ will be discussed, including further translation variants. The interface between religion and medicine, as described in Sūtra Dainichi-kyô, is discussed in the chapter on the historical anthropology of healing in Buddhism.
In addition to the theme of healing, it appears that Kakuban addresses certain groups of people of his time in order to convey a message to them about the connection between Ajikan’s heart of enlightenment and rebirth in the Pure Land of Amida.
One of the basic approaches of Esoteric Buddhism is, among other things, that the embryo for the attainment of Buddhahood is inherent in the heart and merely needs to be awakened. This is an orientation on the here side, which initially contradicts the Amida faith with the focus on the hereafter. Kakuban combines these two approaches through a syncretism of both teachings. Kakuban took over the practice of Nenbutsu 念佛 of Amida Buddhism and the teachings of the Tendai School in the Shingon School. He also campaigned for the revival of the forgotten Shingon rituals shingon gihô 真言 儀 法 of the early Heian period (794-1185).
The simple idea of attaining the heart of enlightenment is often overlooked by complex rituals of esoteric Buddhism. The basic practice for attaining Buddhahood in the body of this incarnation, since Kûkai 空 海 (774-835), has been the contemplative meditation of Siddhaṃ A Ajikan.
The connections described above are intended to explain his motivations for this content, on the one hand, through the analysis and interpretation of the text Ajikan and over Kakuban’s biography.
In this context, and as a transition to the Siddhaṃ in the history of Japanese art in rituals of healing, the history of religio-political background should be illuminated in order to contribute to a better understanding. It is about the history of the Siddhaṃ and their tradition to Japan. From then on, the history of the Siddhaṃ in the Shingon School, in the Tendai School and in Amida Buddhism is explained individually, and then finally to work out the differences and parallels of the schools.
From this understanding follows the chapter on the Siddhaṃ in the history of Japanese art. The genres of art history, in particular architecture, sculpture and painting are examined to what extent the Siddhaṃ play a role in rituals of healing or whether they are bearers of other ritual or decorative functions. It should also be clarified when a ritual can be called a ritual of healing. If there are different types of objects with Siddhaṃ used for rituals of healing, see if they are the same or different Siddhaṃ and if the object type has something to do with the ritual. If the Siddhaṃ repeat, it may be an indication of specific rituals with this very Siddhaṃ. If these only appear on one type, it would be to find out if the type is an indispensable part of the ritual. Thus, in the study of rituals in the genres and types of art, several approaches and questions are used. First of all, the function of the type of a genre is looked at. With which function, at which place and within which frame is the respective type used? In the event that the corresponding use in rituals should be practicable only with Siddhaṃ, this would mean that the function of the type and the Siddhaṃ are relevant to the effect of the ritual. Any other case could mean a variation or a gradation.
From the point of view of art history, it should be considered whether the rituals and types are in context with the religious, historical or political situation of an epoch and what reasons might exist for some ritual and object types to emerge at a certain time.
In the architectural forms, the Siddhaṃ probably most frequently encountered in Japanese art, is the Hriḥ 1 of Amida 阿 弥陀 on pagodas and stelae, which was mostly used for death rituals. In contrast to the attainment of Buddhahood in the present incarnation, the focus of the death rituals is on the hereafter. If other Siddhaṃ appear on the same type of object, there is the possibility for ritual purposes related to this world. This could then mean that the object, as the bearer of the Siddhaṃ, is not necessarily a ritual performer.
In the genre of sculpture, the siddhaṃ are depicted either on the mandorla or in sculptures as gifts or painted on the inner wall. The siddhaṃ on paintings and architectural forms are painted individually, in configurations and in mandalas. All other types are mixed genre such as in sutras, tabernacles and rituals. A special feature is the function of Siddhaṃ depicted on swords. In each genre, there are a number of functions with some similar and partly different rituals. An interconnection of the art-historical types into the division into several phases of development with clarification of their connections concluded in the chapter on Siddhaṃ in the history of art.
The last part of the work deals with meditations, rituals and healing with the Siddhaṃ, which do not necessarily have to be related to art historical genres and types. This is particularly due to the fact that the Siddhaṃ need to be visualized in the context of rituals and not need to be visual. There certainly seems to be some rituals with the A and other Siddhaṃ involving contemplative meditations that go beyond Kakuban’s text Ajikan. It can be seen to what extent the practice of rituals has influenced art and it can be furthered to functions of Siddhaṃ assigned in art.
When working on the topic, it initially appeared that there are relatively few research findings on the Siddhaṃ in Japanese art, because they are usually only incidentally mentioned in exhibition catalogs. Through the study of the text Ajikan, the importance of the individual Siddhaṃ, their function and application in rituals, some results soon became apparent in the research history of the Siddhaṃ.
This work is particularly based on the statements of Kitao, Veere, Zysk, Wayman, Tajima and Kodama on the Siddhaṃ and the monk Kakuban. First and foremost, mention should be made of Kitao, who focuses his research mainly on Siddhaṃ A in Ajikan. His focus is not on the connections of the Siddhaṃ in art, but on meditations of Esoteric Buddhism with analyzes of the texts about the Ajikan from Kakuban.During research in the library of Chizan-ha 智 山 派, a branch of Shingi shingon-shû 新 義 真言 宗 of Kakuban, Kitao had discovered the present text Ajikan, which is not listed in the collected works on Kakuban in Kôgyô daishi zenshû 興 行 大師 全集, Comparisons with copies written in the temples of Jimyô-in 持 明 院 and Kanjuji 勧 修 寺 and kept in the library of the University of Kôya are intended to prove the authenticity of this text.
Veere is one of the first to study Kakuban’s teachings, life, and lyrics in a Western language. His work includes Kakuban’s biography and a discussion of Kakuban’s teachings in his texts Gorin kuji myô himitsu shaku die 輪 明 釈 釈 about the secret explanations of the five elements (Cakras) and nine signs and Amida hishaku 釈 弥陀 釈 about the secret explanations of Amida. In doing so, Veere found that Kakuban’s aim was to explain the syncretism of the Shingon school and Amida Buddhism in practice from the point of view of the Shingon doctrine in the light of the Siddhaṃ. In the above texts, as with the Ajikan, the meaning and function of the Siddhaṃ in rituals is to attain the heart of enlightenment and rebirth in the Pure Land of Amida. Gorin kuji myô himitsu shaku also presents rituals of healing of organs similar in structure to the five-element pagodas gorintô 五 輪 塔.
Zysk thematizes the concept of healing in Buddhism. He pursues several approaches by exploring the historical anthropology of the magical-religious and medical contexts from India to China through sūtras, practices and the mutual influence of Indian and Chinese teachings in medicine and healing.
Wayman and Tajima, in their study of Sūtras Dainichi-kyô, argue that the anonymous author was most likely a Brahmin converted to Buddhism, who propagated the Buddhist form of the fire ritual Goma-hô 護 摩 which, based on the tradition of Buddhism and Siddhaṃ the rituals of healing exercised a lasting influence.
Kodama has collected in his Bonji hikkei 梵字 必 携 several detailed information about the history of Siddhaṃ in Japan, which describe the Siddhaṃ, rituals of healing and art. The study of Siddhaṃ since the introduction of Buddhism into Japan began instead of equating the introduction of Siddhaṃ with the introduction of Esoteric Buddhism by Kûkai and Saichô, as usual. These contents and the resulting possibilities of comparisons to art historical objects with Siddhaṃ are of great importance for the present work.
In addition, in the research history of the Siddhaṃ there are some basic encyclopaedias to the Siddhaṃ, which in each case the history of the Siddhaṃ is included, the documents traditional to Japan and every single Siddhaṃ is illustrated by its meaning and function. Even if the construction is similar, they complement and differ in regards to the content.
Thus, in the Bonji taikan 梵字 大 鑑 there is a focus of the Siddhaṃ on meditations, rituals and their appearance on steles, ritual devices and temple bells. As far as the Ajikan is concerned, variations of it with other siddhaṃ and other functions are presented. In the process, it is discussed when and in which order a Siddhaṃ, the Siddhaṃ representing the form of a remedial figure or a symbol in the form of an object should be visualized in a ritual. This means that this is about extensions of contemplation in meditations for rituals. For rituals with several siddhaṃ instructions are given for the order of the siddhaṃ to be visualized. Consequently, these explanations are useful in clarifying the connection between meditation and ritual in possible representations in the arts. The chapter on rituals explains that the Siddhaṃ go far beyond the function of symbolic letters, being referred to as sacred symbols of the salvific forms of, for example, Buddhas or Bodhisattvas. Precisely for this reason, they should be of the highest significance for the rituals of all schools of esoteric Buddhism. There is a distinction between two types of rituals with Siddhaṃ: First, rituals for the deceased, in which for the dissolution of karmic entanglements metsuzai 滅罪 and inviting a happy fate tsuifuku 追 福 is prayed. Second, rituals of wish fulfillment, with which is prayed for the cure of illnesses and keeping away from unfortunate situations kaji kitô 加 持 祈祷. These ritual aspects will be considered in the course of the work from several points of view and analyzed for connections with the Siddhaṃ in Japanese art in rituals of healing.
In the Bonji jiten 梵字 事 典 the Siddhaṃ are explained in particular in their rituals in mantras with individual remedial figures and in configurations. Art historical objects play a role there only insofar as they can be incorporated into the developmental history of the Siddhaṃ in Japan.
In summary, in esoteric buddhism the Siddhaṃ research history suggests that the focus of Siddhaṃ’s history in Japan is on written records and traditions, the writings and teachings of the monk Kakuban, and that more is occasionally spoken about the function of Siddhaṃ in rituals. The historical art objects seem to play a minor role.In the present work, firstly the areas of history, teaching, function and use of Siddhaṃ in Japanese art are to be brought together, and secondly, a possible connection to the rituals of healing in Japanese art is to be examined. The focus will be on the time between the 11th and the 14th century. For the sake of completeness, an overview of the development of Siddhaṃ in the history of Japanese art since the introduction of Buddhism up to the 10th century is given. On the one hand, the tradition of Siddhaṃ to Japan has been completed by then, and on the other hand, from the 11th century, the influence of Siddhaṃ on Japanese art seems to have increased. Since from the end of the 14th century until the beginning of the Edo period (1603-1868) there are no groundbreaking developments and in order not to blow up the frame, work is to be completed by the end of the 14th century.
The aim of this work is to find out if the Siddhaṃ were used in rituals of healing until the 14th century and what influence that has on Japanese art. In other words, that means first of all, whether there are any sound resources. The first step was to find a meaningful text about philosophy, meditation, action and healing with the Siddhaṃ.The present translation of the text Ajikan is an example of this. The text is difficult and complex because of its interweaving. In return he offers sufficient information about the development, meaning and function of Siddhaṃ A for healing in contemplative meditation, which, as it turned out, forms the basis for any ritual practice with Siddhaṃ. Thus, the contemplation of Siddhaṃ and rituals are close together.
Through the goal-oriented views of the art-historical material possible connections and references between the text Ajikan in esoteric buddhism and the influence on the art are to be found out. In the chapter on the Siddhaṃ in the history of Japanese art, all genres are presented that have Siddhaṃ. Therefore it is not in the interest of the author just to present the objects for rituals of healing with the Siddhaṃ, but to create an overview of the objects with Siddhaṃ and variations of the rituals. From this it can be seen how important the Siddhaṃ have in rituals in general and in rituals of healing.From this it can be seen how important the Siddhaṃ have in rituals in general and in rituals of healing.
Earlier it was described that the Siddhaṃ Hriḥ in esoteric buddhism is often found on pagodas and stelae for death rituals. This may give the impression that the Siddhaṃ has been used extensively for this purpose. This can be refuted by using resource material from other objects and the fact that pagodas and stelae are more imperishable in nature because of their stone material than other objects that are also often hidden in other objects, such as those in a sculpture zônai nônyûhin像 内 納入 品.
In all five major chapters of the work, the question of whether evidence for the Siddhaṃ in rituals of healing and whether such information can be transferred to Japanese art so that one can possibly guess in which area the next step of the Search is possible. This means that all the topics in the chapters are related and that the content builds upon each other.
An example of this is the question of whether the Siddhaṃ have an influence on the Amida beliefs and, if so, what their influence is. Assuming that the Amida belief in Esoteric Buddhism has evolved through the centuries of continuous simplification of its application, it is understandable that the Siddhaṃ Hriḥ 1 of Amida is carved for pagodas and steles for funeral rituals. However, on paintings of Amida inscriptions with the Siddhaṃ A reminiscent of the Ajikan in their kind, so that an influence of Kakuban’s syncretism in Japanese art is apparent. Such questions and how to relate these events to healing should be explained here.
Reiki and calligraphy are closely related. First of all, Reiki comes from Japan and is therefore interwoven or influenced by Japanese culture. The memorial stone by the tomb of Mikao Usui, who describes his life and work with Reiki, is chiseled into the stone by a calligrapher. There are also the Reiki characters (Kanji), which have spread over the years in different forms of calligraphic and artistic design in Reiki circles and thus in the Internet and in print media.
The Reiki characters written with the brush are a calligraphy. Many Reiki practitioners wish to be able to write these letters or other signs with the brush, to learn them or simply to have such a calligraphy. Those who actually take action, and procure brush, ink and paper, will soon realize that writing the Reiki characters with brush and ink often do not lead to the desired results as on a template. Why is that? Calligraphy is an art and a craft that can be learned gradually under the guidance of a qualified teacher.
Usui precepts – calligtaphy by Mark Hosak, 2015
Spiritual calligraphy, as well as traditional Chinese and Japanese calligraphy, is more than just beautiful writing. Both in the lettering and in the calligraphy, as well as in the spiritual calligraphy, is written on the so-called rice paper with the classic brush and ink. So one might think that everyone cooks their soup with the same water.However, that’s not quite true. In Japan, for example, calligraphy is differentiated into the disciplines of the beautiful letters shûji 習字 and the path of the brush shodô 書 道. Every Japanese learns the beautiful writing with brush and ink in school. He learns to write the characters in such a way that they look as if they are Japanese. Each character is pressed into a square form if possible. The order and shape of the strokes is just as important. Actually quite similar to drawing and applying Reiki symbols of the second and third degree (master grade).
Shodô 書道 – the way of the brush
The correct way of writing is more a prerequisite for the way of the brush, whereby the beautiful appearance as the end result is preferred to a special force, which starts from the calligraphy. The individual strokes are trained as if every single stroke is a work of art. Thus, a stroke with the brush is not just left to right. Rather, the brush is literally dipped in the paper and guided in circles and spirals with upward and downward movements, as if one were making a Taichi form with the brush until the single stroke is brought to its perfection, before flowing into the next stroke of the same character.
In order to get into this momentum and to bring this power with brush and ink on the paper, it requires a meditative state of the calligrapher. It becomes clear at this point that the art of calligraphy, or even the way of the brush, is a spiritual method of self-discovery and self-realization with an enormous expressiveness. Even a single character written as a spiritual calligraphy, can exert a magical effect on the viewer. Several characters together make up proverbs or even poetry, whereby not only the content, but also the calligraphy and the context in which this work of art originated play an important role. This in turn is related to the history of calligraphy.
History of calligraphy
Calligraphy was created in China in the course of philosophical and ritual Daoism to create and copy texts and to create talismans and amulets. In Japan, Chinese calligraphy is used both as an art form and for ritual purposes, such as copying Buddhist sutras. About the memorial stone of Mikao Usui at his grave is known that Usui was a Buddhist monk and that he knew about spiritual and occult methods that work with calligraphy. Originally, the Chinese characters handed down to Japan since the sixth century were not developed to write a language but as a pure ritual script.
Calligraphy and Meditation
Any form of preoccupation with calligraphy, from spreading the utensils to rubbing the ink, to writing every single stroke as well as the point, is a meditative act. One sinks fully into the moment and forgets space and time. Through writing one gains deep knowledge of the meaning of the signs in connection with oneself.
It soon becomes apparent that each stroke is a work of art in itself, and that many strokes become signs, and therefrom, texts with profound meaning. It is not so much about simply writing beautiful characters, but rather about transferring the life energy ki 氣 with ink onto paper with the brush. If this succeeds, expressive characters emerge as if they were jumping out of the paper.
The seminar of Spiritual Calligraphy
In the Spiritual Calligraphy Seminar, the basics of using the Four Treasures, i.e. brush, ink, rubbing stone and paper are explained and taught to use meditatively. The rubbing of the ink is also followed by meditative basic exercises with the painting of the circle, which plays a special role in Zen calligraphy. At the same time, the basics of writing are trained in order to be able to write individual characters in the correct order of lines full of life force.
After practicing some simple signs, such as Heart 心, Sun 日 or Moon 月, participants can freely choose their own characters according to their needs. It is possible to choose combined terms such as Aikido, Reiki, Dragon or your own name. The characters to be practiced are then pre-painted by Dr. Mark Hosak, so that they can be copied from this original, as is custom in classical calligraphy lessons in Japan.
The aim of the seminar is, among other things, to calm down the heart via calligraphy, to express the inherent power of the sign and to take home a self-painted beautiful version at the end. Second-degree Reiki practitioners or Reiki masters also get a new sense of how to use the Reiki symbols through the practice of spiritual calligraphy, as they virtually draw a calligraphy in the air. Participants in the Spiritual Calligraphy seminar report time and again that they did not previously expect such an extension of their Reiki skills with the symbols. They believe that only now have they come to understand the meaning of the symbols and truly use their power.
For the seminar ones own utensils can be brought. What is needed and where it can be ordered, will be announced at registration. However, it is not recommended to use most calligraphy sets because the brushes are usually too small.
The calligrapher Dr. Mark Hosak
Dr. Mark Hosak has been working on Chinese and Japanese calligraphy for over 20 years. He studied East Asian Art History and Japanese Studies at the Universities of Heidelberg and Kyoto Daigaku, focusing on calligraphy, symbology and Buddhist ritual art. During many trips and his three-year stay in Japan, he was able to learn a lot about Japanese culture in the fields of calligraphy, Buddhism, healing art and martial arts and to make it easy to understand for the West. Today Dr. Mark Hosak lives in Eberbach near Heidelberg and directs the Shingon Institute Rhein-Neckar, where he teaches traditional Buddhist rituals, as well as shamanic healing and martial arts. This also includes spiritual calligraphy for the healing of one’s own heart / spirit. Writing about the Siddham scripture in rituals of healing, out of which the mental healing symbol developed, Dr. Mark Hosak received his doctorate from the University of Heidelberg.
Seminar content Spiritual calligraphy
What is Calligraphy
The history of calligraphy
Basics for dealing with brush, ink and paper
The basic techniques of Zen monks to speedily learn calligraphy
The calligraphic writing of simple characters
The calligraphic writing of desired signs, such as Reiki or your own name
The way of the brush and how to transfer strength with ink onto paper
Writing the life rules of Mikao Usui
The writing of the Heart Sutra of Buddhism
Order a calligraphy prepared by Dr. Mark Hosak
Dr. Mark Hosak creates calligraphy tailored to individual needs, in different sizes and formats. If interested simply contact Dr. Mark Hosak thru office-at-markhosak.com
In the course of the spread of Reiki and the development of several Reiki styles in many countries, it is sometimes difficult to understand what belongs to the original. There should be a common ground approached between all styles of Reiki, where you can recognize their authenticity. These are the five pillars of Reiki. They are the cornerstones of the Usui Reiki healing method.
Usui rules of life – calligraphy by Dr. Mark Hosak, 2015
When the Japanese Mikao Usui, the founder of the Reiki healing method, developed his Reiki method, he let philosophical and practical contents of the secret teachings of Buddhism (mikkyo 密 教), shamanism (Shinto 神道), the shamanic-magical Daoism of the Bergaskets (Shugendo修 験 道) and incorporated the Confucian manners and teachings of the samurai flow into his system. It seems to him to be a particular concern to find himself thru spiritual development with spiritual exercises for his own primeval. With the Reiki method, Usui has created a self-discovery path and self-healing way. Both can be utilized by applying the five pillars of Reiki to both ones self and those in need.
The five pillars of Reiki
Reiki and laying on of hands
Reiki is a power and the spiritual life energy, which is transmitted predominantly over the palms (tenohira 掌) for healing with laying on of hands (teate 手 当). Reikiism by putting one’s hands on the body or holding and moving one’s hands in the aura is the basis for the applications of the Reiki healing method.
Reiki and initiations
In order to bring the Reiki power to flow in humans, it requires the attunements or initiations by an experienced Reiki master. With Mikao Usui there was an attunement that had to be repeated from time to time to maintain the Reiki power. This he called Reiju 靈 授. Literally, Reiju means ‚to receive the spiritual‘.
One of Usui’s students and master, the doctor and officer Chujiro Hayashi then introduced the system of four initiations. These are given in 1st level seminar. These are the traditional four initiations, as taught by Ms. Takata for the spread of Reiki in the West, to sustain the Reiki force for a lifetime.
In the 2nd level Reiki there is then another initiation into the three Reiki symbols and then for the Reiki master’s initiation into the Master symbol.
Reiki Symbols and Mantras
To expand the possibilities, there are Reiki symbols and mantras. These are named differently depending on the historical source. If a symbol has a Buddhist origin, it is called Siddham (symbol) and mantra (spoken tool to complete the heart / mind). These are mostly based on the esoteric or tantric Buddhism of the Shingon School and Tendai School. Mantra and Siddham means in Japanese (shingon 真言). If the origin is found more in Shinto and Shugendo, one speaks of characters (shirushi し る し) and magical spells (jumon 呪 文).
Reiki Meditations and mental exercises
As a Buddhist monk, Usui had emphasized meditation and spiritual/mental exercises, such as breathing techniques, to train the supernatural abilities of ones natural talents.
Reiki and the rules of life
The Reiki rules of life (gokai 五戒) are the philosophical foundation of the Reiki healing method. In particular, it is about five simple sentences, with which one can lead a happy life. They are described as a secret method of inviting happiness and as a spiritual herb or as a spiritual medicine for 10,000 or countless illnesses in body, soul and spirit.
Especially on this day…
do not annoy neither you or others
do not worry
take care of your karma
be kind to all living beings
This is followed by the instructions that you should put your hands together in front of your heart morning and evening, that you may direct the enlightenment into your spiritual heart and that you may recite it aloud.
You can learn the five pillars as part of the 1st level Shingon Reiki seminar and all subsequent seminars.
In 2015, Mikao Usui would be 150 years old. On the occasion of and in his honor, several events took place in 2015. This includes in particular the Reiki symposium in Vienna and Berlin. I was invited to both events and was able to gain many wonderful experiences as a participant and speaker. It’s just a fantastic energy to celebrate Mikao Usui with so many Reiki practitioners.
Reiki Symposium in Vienna
The Reiki Symposium in Vienna had the motto ‚Reiki in the circle of life‘. Based on this, the contents of many lectures were designed. Mostly, several lectures ran in parallel, so that everyone could choose their favorite topic. I will now briefly comment on some of the presentations at the symposium.
The beginning of life
Lecture at the symposium from Dr. Leopold Spindelberger
This lecture was about the origin of the life from the ovum upto birth in connection with Reiki. At the same time science and the humanities came together again, as it once was. This is important, because the separation of the two created mindless science. This was briefly illustrated by dangerous gene experiments and their possibilities. Dr. Leopold Spindelberger believes that the study of a natural science should also include a few semesters in ethics and morality.
Below are some notes from the lecture:
Reiki is comparable to the essential being, which is invisible and yet scientifically explainable. Just because you can not see it does not mean that it is not there. With Reiki on the skin, the internal organs are reached via the nerves. This is an activation of the self-healing powers, because the surfaces of reflex zones, triger zones and triger points are supplied with Reiki energy and from there the energy is passed on to the corresponding organs.
A comparison of the origin of life with the original symbol of Christianity: the fish. Originally it was the fish, then the sacred bone of the pelvis, because from there comes life. From the cross of the sacrum was later linked to back pain to breaking the cross and suffering. The fish is related to the origin of life, because the human embryo still has gills like a fish and later develops these back. In addition, there are two cycles in the womb and two hearts, which later grow into one. Heart and pulmonary circulation is still switched off because of the connection to the mother.
Nutrition is the basis for the therapy of Chinese medicine
Scientists know only 2% of genes and call the rest junk genes. This is related to the fact that scientists search outside and for example yogis search for answers inside.
Einstein and Reiki: The phenomenon of entanglement is an explanation for Reiki distance healing. When everything is connected to everything and something changes somewhere, something changes throughout. Unfortunately, quantum physics is barely integrated into mainstream medicine, although it would be possible and legally obliged to use the latest option.
Involution: before something develops, it has to be wrapped up. If you wrap something up, the first point is inside and the last outside. Scientists see only the outside and therefore can not grasp the whole. Here is a connection to the Bible: ‚The spirit was above the water and God said it would be light. Consequently, in development, the human being comes to the core and the origin, and it becomes light. This is also the context that for God 1000 years appear as a day. Accordingly, only two days have passed since Jesus.
Anthroposophists divide man into the physical body, the etheric body, the astral body and the ego organization. The astral body is supposed to represent the opposite sex from the time when man was still a hermaphrodite. Therefore, there is no definite male and female. That’s why some people do not feel comfortable in their bodies with their gender. But this is made possible by means of a sex change.
Hinayana Buddhism seeks through meditation its own other sexual part in itself as a path to enlightenment.
Celibate means unmarried. Sex is allowed. (I interviewed a woman who studied theology, she said that was correct, and that you learn right from the start that as a pastor you can have as much sex as you want, but you can not tell anyone. Female Pastors receive extra salary for a child, so that it pays off for better tax purposes.)
Amniotic fluid has a ph value of eight. Therefore, base cosmetics are the most effective.
The mother walking brings the embryo to sleep. Until the 32th week the embryo sleeps up to 20 hours a day. Therefore, walking is very helpful.
Until the 20th week, the embryo is hairy like a monkey, which then regresses later..
From the 30th week, the embryo can feel pain and therefore also respond to Reiki
Sugary diet of the mother gives the child / embryo an energy boost. It wakes up and does not sleep enough. That leads to stress. In addition, it gets used to it and therefore would get ADS later.
At the 36th week it is then developed and viable.
By week 40, a head down move with TCM is possible. Reiki Mental Healing also made a turn in a ten-minute dialogue between mother and child shortly before birth. The child is said to have turned, which immediately averted a Caesarean section.
„Turn yourself because you don’t want a caesarean section“
The more and the sooner one intervenes, the less complicated the birth becomes
At birth, it is helpful if the mother as a helper puts the Reiki hands on the Dantien (below the belly button) at birth
Homeopathized meteoric iron is said to give the woman Yang energy as an aid to childbirth.
If men connect with Yang energy, we can transfer that energy to the woman.
Health risks increase for children with cesarean section. With a caesarean section no oxytocin (bonding and love hormone) is distributed. Then it takes longer for mother and child to bond together. At normal birth a lot of oxytocin is released.
The Qi (life energy) is between Patrix and Matrix. The Qi comes from the star Asterix.
The whole variety of life energy
LECTURE AT THE SYMPOSIUM FROM Oliver Klatt
In this very insightful presentation, Oliver Klatt, in line with his recent new book title ‚The Healing Power of Life Energy‘, addressed the concepts of life energy in different countries and spiritual traditions.
Here are some examples of life energy
Baraka in Islam
Prana in Sanskrit in India – Here Akasha is to act on Prana as the origin
Shekina is dependent on the divine light that shines from above
Qi in China
In the Yohoba tradition Asshee (Spiritual Electricity)
Awen Druid’s life energy as a streaming spirit
In the further course, it went beyond the definitions of what makes life energy, where it occurs and how it works
Dion Fortune is supposed to have said that life force preserves all that is. First, a think-form is created (I suppose it is supposed to be a form of thought), which is then filled with life energy, which in turn should be preserved to have a lasting effect.
In relics and personal belongings, such as in rings, the owners‘ powers and vital energies are perpetuated, especially when they have been in personal possession for a long time. This also applies to works of art. So a painted picture in a museum can be in better hands than in the living room, if you do not want to get even closer to the charged energy.
Every Buddhist teaching is filled with a flow of energy. Buddhas are brought to life in rituals.
An energy force lives in the room.
Kabbalistic letters radiate energy.
The dragon and the snake stand for energy. In China, it includes all animals in water, land and air as representative of all movements
Grateful life – fulfilled life
LECTURE AT THE SYMPOSIUM FROM Brother david
Brother David has especially touched me. He is about 90 years old, but looks externally and mentally more likely 30 to 40 years younger. This seems to be the result of a grateful and fulfilled life.
Here are some notes from the lecture:
Being thankful and saying thanks are two different things.
A given moment is the greatest and most precious gift. You can not buy it. Brother David is pleased at the moment looking at the burning candle on the table in front of him
Happiness is not stable. Joy can always be there.
Even if something unpleasant happens, you may be grateful for the opportunity
Offers to rejoice are numerous and opportunities to learn and grow at the same time. So you should take the opportunity to protest. This led brother David to know that his protest with others prevented an atomic bombing on Vietnam.
The moment gives possibilities and the power for realization
Who is grateful, when I’m grateful?
Some live upwards from the eyebrows and forget that they have a body. Who has the body? That is itself, which is above space and time. With the body I am limited. The body limits the self in space and time. The self is not bound and yet bound. Every one of myself is unique.
I myself means fullness of life.
Now, and not at the time when I’m not myself.
Where is this now? The time is in the now.
When asked if that is not hair-splitting, the answer is that you can split a hair as long as you have one.
Time runs out and the now stays now
With the now one comes to the life energy
How should one activate ones self with gratitude?
It is a simple method but not easy – Stop and pause first – When we get carried away by time, you are a slave to time.To break this, you have to pause!
Just pause for a moment when you start something. Then everything that one carries on becomes different. If you insert a key, pause.
Then look for the opportunity with all your senses
Look at the flower, smell it, feel it
The moment gives something and then let energy flow through it.
The Self and the Holy Spirit – We are one with the divine reality. The self was given a name. Paul says I do not live the Christ in me. The Holy Spirit is the Dynamic there.
In Buddhism, the origin of nothingness from which everything comes. The leap from nothing to abundance.
All that exists is the word in the sense that it appeals to me. I can also answer and that’s then the ego.
Spirit of understanding through doing and doing in love and saying yes to life is the Holy Spirit. This brings us into contact with the divine secret.
It can not conceive or be comprehended conceptually, but we can understand it by occupying ourselves or dealing with it. An image for understanding is music, because you can not understand much about it.
Concepts make us touched and wise. Then the life energy flows through us, and what drives us is the Holy Spirit.
Why do you talk about souls? I have countless ones. All of them has one thing in common. What makes me as me, is the soul.
That God is separated from us is a mistake. We live in God – Pantheism: Everything is God – Yes, but God goes beyond everything. This includes the relationship to all that exists
They are in us and God is in us and we are in God. It is like a bowl of seawater and the bowl is at the same time in the seawater. The sea goes beyond everything. The utopians speak of sparks. The spark is the beginning.
Fatigue teaches patience, when you become tired by doing the exercises.
What is a trust? Trust signifies faith. The opposite is a fear. It helps to make a distinction between anxiety and fear. Anxiety is inevitable in life. Comes from angustia narrowness. We come through a narrow natal canal. There we still have the talent to take part instinctively. Anxiety is positioning onesself against it. Through narrowness one comes into a new expanse. The tighter it is, the more expansive it gets.
Courage can only be had when one is afraid, because one thinks one can get through when things get tight. Fear is an opportunity for our trust in and on life.
Almost everyone has a fear of death. Hardly anyone is impassive. Death is a narrowness into a new life as in a new birth.
What is grace? Life is grace. Grace is a gift. It is the same word. Everything is a gift. That’s the power to make something out of it. The gift gives the power to make something out of it.
A graceful dancer lets go of everything, so that only the dance remains and one no longer thinks about how one looks doing it. If you are the way you are, you are gifted. Grace can be seen as a force that gives us life together with the opportunity to use it. 90% of the time is the opportunity to enjoy something. We sleep and only wake up first when something unpleasant happens
Gratitude is due only to the Creator.
Meaning of resigning a church: They are in the same water but not in the same channel. The channel is unimportant. It’s the flow, which is important.
Spirituality signifies breath of life and liveliness comes from spiritus.
Will the church become spiritual again? Church is also called institution. If the group gets too big, it has to become institutionalized. Institute is founded for a purpose. If you forget the purpose, it becomes self-purpose. The members have to guide the institution back to the original idea.
Out of fear rises, avarice, greed, power, violence. It must be replaced by cooperation and sharing. Living water also comes from rusty pipes.
The Usui rules of life in the circle of life
LECTURE AT THE SYMPOSIUM from Mark Hosak
A second day at the symposium gave me the honor of giving a lecture on the Usui rules of life in the circle of life. I was looking forward to it for a long time because I was able to present some new translations there: memorial stone, calligraphy and the instructions of the Meiji-Tennô to the people, which are mentioned on the memorial stone.
The rules of life have to do with the circle of life, because in Usui’s life many circles closed, which led him finally to the Kurama mountain to receive there on the mountain peak Reiki energy. This is like the falling of a stone into a lake whose waves are drawing ever wider circles around it.
That is how Mikao Usui brought Reiki from the mountain and passed it on, so that until today it did not stop to draw new circles around the world. I describe the exact contents of the lecture in a separate article about the Usui rules of life and the Meiji-Tenno.